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DIETS
With the progression of obesity worldwide, the number of practical effective diets (are
they all effective, as advertised?) it rising every day. Before starting with one weight loss
program, the person should be conscious of potential dangers for health and be aware
that every diet brings deficit in vitamin and mineral supplements.
Diets to promote
weight loss are
generally divided into
four categories:
Low-fat
minimize the consumption of saturated
fat and cholesterol. It is important to
know that dietary fat is needed for good
health, as fats supply energy and fatty
acids, in addition to supplying fat-soluble
vitamins like A, D, E, and K
Low-carbohydrate
reduce weight for short time, such as
Atkins’ diet and has relatively high level in
protein and fats. Can easily cause ketosis
(very unhealthy and dangerous imbalance
of homeostasis)
Low calories
500–1,000 calories. Foods high in easily
digestible carbohydrates (e.g., sugar,
bread, pasta) are limited or replaced with
foods containing a higher percentage
of fats and moderate protein (e.g.,
meat, poultry, seafood, eggs, cheese,
nuts and seeds) and other foods low
in carbohydrates (e.g., most salad
vegetables), although other vegetables
and fruits (especially berries) are often
allowed. The amount of carbohydrate
not allowed varies with different low-
carbohydrate diets.
Very low calories
provide 200–800 calories per day. Very
dangerous but frequented.
Long-term studies of dieting however
indicate that the majority of individuals,
who dieted, regain virtually all of the
weight, or gained even more, that was lost
after dieting regardless of whether they
maintain their diet or exercise program.
Low-carbohydrate diets are also used to
treat or prevent some chronic diseases
and conditions including: cardiovascular
disease, metabolic syndrome, high blood
pressure and diabetes, epilepsy, chronic
fatigue syndrome and polycystic ovarian
syndrome.
The
DASH diet
(Dietary Approaches
to Stop Hypertension) is a dietary
pattern promoted by the U.S. National
Institute for Health to prevent and control
hypertension. The DASH diet is rich
in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and
low-fat dairy foods; includes meat, fish,
poultry, nuts and beans; and is limited
in sugar-sweetened foods and beverages,
red meat, and added fats. In addition
to its effect on blood pressure, it is
designed to be a well-balanced approach
to eating for the general public. It is
now recommended by the United States
Department of Agriculture (USDA) as an
ideal eating plan for all Americans.
Calorie restriction is a feature of several
dietary regimens medically approved
including the
Okinawa diet
and
the
CRON diet.
38
Jan/Feb 2014