A heart attack is a sudden serious medical condition in which someone’s heart stops working, causing them great pain. It is the most common of the heart diseases and occurs when blood flow to the heart and part of it is blocked, often by a blood clot, which is a thick almost solid mass formed when blood dries.
This situation is usually caused by arteriosclerosis a disease in which arteries become hard, stopping the blood from flowing through them smoothly. Sometimes, the clot is called coronary thrombosis or coronary occlusion, since is often caused by rupturing or tearing of plaque in an artery.
Muscle cells damaged and die, if blood supply is cut off for a long time, leading to disability or death depending on the extent of the damage to the muscle.
A heart attack it is also known as myocardial infarction, which can also occur when a coronary artery temporarily contracts or goes into spasm, decreasing or cutting the blood flowing to the heart.
A heart attack represents on or about half of all coronary heart disease deaths and can be caused by nearly all types of heart illness.
There exist three main symptoms to know when a heart attack occurs. One is the pressure or pain in the centre of the chest, lasting more than a few minutes or going away and coming back. A second symptom is when pain spreads to the shoulders, neck or arms. A third symptom consists in a chest discomfort combined with light-headedness, fainting, sweating, nausea or shortness of breath.
A heart attack, which is the most common consequence of a heart disease, can be recognized not only by three symptoms mentioned, but also be recognized by other warning signs, such as unusual chest, stomach or abdominal pain, nausea or dizziness, cold sweat or paleness, shortness of breath or difficulty breathing, weakness or fatigue, palpitations, and unexplained anxiety.
It is very important to be calm when a relative, friend or person has a heart attack, since you will have to know what to do if something like this happens. The first thing is to call an ambulance immediately. Then, according to experts, check whether the patient is conscious or not and place them flat on their back, kneel beside them and put one hand on their forehead and the other on their chin.
After doing these, tilt back their head. And lift their chin until their teeth almost touch. You will have to look and listen for signs of breathing. Pinch their nose and cover their mouth with yours, if the person is not breathing normally. Give two full breaths. The person’s chest should rise as a consequence.
You may check the person’s pulse by putting your fingers on their neck, next to their Adam’s apple and windpipe, which is the tube through which air passes from mouth to lungs. Put your hands on the centre of the person’s chest at the height of their nipples, if there is no pulse. Then put one hand on top of the other. Push down two inches on their chest 15 times. Continue with the two breaths and 15 pumps until an ambulance arrives.